Chapter 2: The Brain and Nervous System

2.6: The Brain

The brain is the most complex part of the human body, consisting of 86 billion neurons, each of which may connect with 1000s of other neurons. It is the center of higher-order processes like planning, memory, problem solving, and consciousness, and coordinates voluntary and involuntary movements and bodily functions. This section provides an introductory overview of the brain and some basic neuroanatomy.

The mammalian brain can be subdivided in many ways, resulting in some inconsistent and ambiguous naming conventions over the history of neuroanatomy (Swanson, 2000). One way to think about brain organization reflects brain development in the embryo. The human nervous system starts as a simple neural tube, and 3-4 weeks after conception, the tube expands into three primary vesicles—the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. After a few more weeks, these primary vesicles give rise to secondary vesicles that eventually develop into the components of the adult nervous system (more detail on brain development in Chapter 7). As seen in Figure 9, the forebrain vesicle develops into a) the cerebrum, which includes the cerebral cortex (frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes) and underlying subcortical structures (e.g., the hippocampus, amygdala, and basal ganglia), and b) the diencephalon, which includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. The midbrain primary vesicle develops into part of the brainstem, including the superior and inferior colliculi. The hindbrain develops into the cerebellum and other brainstem regions including the pons and medulla oblongata. We introduce these brain structures in the section below.


Figure 9: The central nervous system and its various major subdivisions.

Cerebral Cortex

The cerebral cortex is a thin sheet of neurons that makes up the outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres. The term cortex, derived from the Latin for “bark,” refers to a thin sheet of neurons; in contrast, the term nucleus(plural: nuclei) in neuroanatomy refers to a cluster of neurons. The cerebral cortex is made up of gray matter, a type of tissue named for its color that consists largely of neuronal cell bodies and short-range connections. Conversely, white matter tissue consists largely of axons covered in myelin, a fatty white substance that insulates axons to speed the transmission of neural signals. White-matter fiber tracts underlie the gray matter of the cerebral cortex and send signals to more distant brain regions (Figure 10).


Figure 10. Coronal tissue slice from the brain of a macaque monkey. The gray matter of the cerebral cortex is the outer layer depicted in dark violet. The underlying white matter fiber tracts are shown in lighter color.

The cerebral cortex ‘bark’ is only 2-4 mm across, but most cortex consists of 6 layers. Each layer has characteristic cell types and connectivity—the innermost layers 5 and 6 send signals out of cortex, layer 4 receives input from the thalamus, layers 2 and 3 project to nearby regions within cortex, and layer 1 has very few cell bodies and mostly contains the tips of dendrites and axons (Hall, 2023).

The thin cortex has a surprisingly large surface area—the human cortex is about 1800 cm2, making the cortex in each hemisphere about the size of medium thin-crust pizza (minus the sauce, cheese, and toppings) (Van Essen et al., 2018) (Figure 11). This large surface area fits into the small volume of the cranium, because the human cortex is extensively folded (most other animals including small mammals have smooth cortex). Folding maximizes the surface-to-volume ratio, and improves packaging and communication efficiency (Shipp, 2007).


Hybrid picture of a brain and peperoni pizza
Figure 11. The thin outermost layer of each cerebral hemisphere, the cerebral cortex, is about the size of a medium thin-crust pizza–minus the sauce, cheese, and toppings.

The folding of the cortex also gives the brain its bumpy appearance. The bumps are called gyri (singular: gyrus) and the valleys between gyri are called sulci (singular: sulcus). Larger and deeper sulci are called fissures. Major gyri, sulci, and fissures are used as landmarks to separate the cortex into its major regions, including the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (Figure 12). The central sulcus marks the border between the frontal and parietal lobes. The lateral sulcus (also called the Sylvian fissure), separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes. The occipital lobe has no obvious anatomical border on the outer surface of the brain. However, from the medial (inner) surface, an obvious landmark, the parieto-occipital sulcus, separates the parietal and occipital lobes.


Figure 12: The lobes of the brain and the major sulci that mark the borders. The central sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes. The lateral sulcus marks the upper border of the temporal lobe. And the parieto-occipital sulcus (which is more clearly seen on the medial surface) separates the parietal and occipital lobes.

Another prominent landmark, the longitudinal fissure, runs down the brain’s midline and separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The two cerebral hemispheres are connected to each other via the corpus callosum, a large white matter tract that passes information between hemispheres. The left and right hemispheres are structurally symmetrical and often have overlapping and redundant functions, but there is some lateralization of function, where some brain functions are processed more in one hemisphere than the other. For example, touch signals and motor commands for each side of the body are processed in the contralateral (opposite) side of the brain, and language for most people is processed more in the left hemisphere.

Finally, smaller subregions  of the cerebral cortex are associated with particular functions, a concept known as localization of function. In the early 1900s, a German neuroscientist named Korbinian Brodmann extensively studied the microscopic anatomy, or cytoarchitecture, of the cerebral cortex and divided the cortex into 52 separate regions based on the microscopic tissue structure. These “Brodmann areas” are still used today to describe anatomical regions within the cortex (Figure 13). Brodmann’s anatomical work aligns well with the particular functions within the cortex. For example, Brodmann area 4 (as defined based on the microscopic tissue structure) aligns with the primary motor cortex that sends motor commands to the spinal cord.[1]


Figure 13. Brodmann’s maps from 1909 that he built based on the cytoarchitecture or microscopic tissue structure and organization. Several important Brodmann areas are shown on the brain’s lateral surface (left) and the medial surface (right).

Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe, located in the front of the brain (where else?), is involved in planning and implementing movement, as well as higher-order cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, problem solving, and abstract thought. The frontal lobe is made up of subregions that perform specialized functions. At the back of the frontal lobe is the precentral gyrus (the gyrus or bump directly pre- or anterior to the central sulcus); this region is the primary motor cortex, which contains neurons that send commands to the spinal cord to move skeletal muscles. Areas  within the primary motor cortex map to different muscle groups in an ordered manner (Figure 14). Body parts that require especially fine motor control, like the fingers, lips, and tongue, occupy more “neural real estate” on the motor cortex than, say, the shoulder or trunk. Anterior to the primary motor cortex are other areas associated with movement, including the premotor  area (involved in movement planning) and the frontal eye fields (involved in eliciting eye movements and visual attention).

image of the brain central sulcus
Figure 14. The primary motor cortex on the precentral gyrus is directly anterior to the central sulcus. It is organized so certain areas of the motor strip send signals to specific body parts like the tongue or fingers.

Anterior to the motor and premotor cortex is the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is involved in many cognitive and executive functions (Figure 15). In the inferior prefrontal cortex (usually left lateralized) lies Broca’s area (Figure 16), a region involved in language production. Broca’s area is named after a French physician, Paul Broca, who in 1861, documented that damage here impaired speech production. Other major subregions of the prefrontal cortex include the dorsolateral PFC (dorsal=upper, lateral=outer) involved in working memory, planning, inhibiting responses, and cognitive flexibility, and the orbitofrontal cortex at the very front (by the orbits of the eye), which is involved in complex decision making, encoding value, emotion, sociality, and predicting the consequences of our actions (Rudebeck & Rich, 2018).

In general, more anterior regions in the brain and within the frontal lobe are roughly associated with ‘higher’ cognitive function, such as rule learning at higher levels of abstraction. High-level abstract thought, executive function (such as maintaining goal-directed behavior), language, and navigating complex social contexts are crucial for what we consider “human” cognition. Indeed, the corresponding prefrontal regions are disproportionately large in humans and have expanded or reorganized in humans compared to other species, especially compared to species more distant on the evolutionary tree (Van Essen et al., 2018)

Humans with frontal lobe damage can have a variety of impairments depending on the location and extent of the damage. These impairments include changes in personality, cognition, learning, decision making, risk assessment, behavioral inhibition, and social function.[2]


Figure 15. Prefrontal cortex in blue-ish colors. Subregions include: Broca’s area marked by its Brodmann areas (BA) numbers 44 and 45; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [BA 9 and 46], and the orbitofrontal cortex [BA 10 and 11].

Temporal Lobe

The temporal lobe is located in the lateral portion of each hemisphere under the  temples (hence “temporal”). It is involved in processing auditory information, understanding language, recognizing visual objects, and memory. The auditory cortex, the main area responsible for processing auditory information, is located in the superior temporal lobe. In the posterior part of the superior temporal lobe lies Wernicke’s area, a region involved in language comprehension; Wernicke’s area connects to the frontal Broca’s area (involved in language production) through the arcuate fasciculus, a white-matter fiber tract (Figure 16).

In addition to processing sound and language, the temporal lobe is also critical for visual object recognition and memory. The ventral (bottom) surface of the temporal lobe receives visual signals from the visual cortex and contains subregions that are highly specialized to perceive and recognize faces (the fusiform face area) and places and scenes (the parahippocampal place area). Damage to these regions, from a stroke for example, can impair very specific abilities; lesions to the inferior temporal lobe may lead to prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize and identify faces (Kanwisher & Yovel, 2008). Finally, the medial temporal lobes are important for encoding long-term memory.[3]


Image of the Wernicke's area
Figure 16. Broca’s area in the left frontal gyrus; Wernicke’s area in the superior temporal gyrus; and the arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that connects the caudal temporal cortex with the inferior frontal lobe.

Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe, located above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe, processes touch, bodily and spatial maps, and integrates senses. The postcentral gyrus (directly behind the central sulcus) houses the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). This region processes the tactile senses, including touch, pressure, pain, itch, and vibration, as well as more general bodily senses of proprioception (body position) and kinesthesia (movement sense). The somatosensory cortex is organized topographically, meaning that adjacent parts of the skin are represented by adjacent areas of the somatosensory cortex. HIghly sensitive body parts have more nerve receptors on the skin and occupy larger regions of the cortex than less sensitive areas. For example as seen in Figure 17, the highly sensitive fingers and lips occupy much more somatosensory cortex than the leg and trunk.


Figure 17. A coronal brain slice showing the somatosensory cortex and its topographic organization. More sensitive body parts, like the face and hands, are processed by larger regions of the somatosensory cortex, compared to less sensitive regions like the leg and trunk.

While the anterior parietal cortex processes body senses, the posterior parietal cortex is an “associative” region, meaning that it is neither strictly sensory nor motor. Rather it combines inputs from touch, proprioception, vision, and audition, as well as from motor and prefrontal regions (Whitlock, 2017). This integrative aspect makes it important for making spatial maps to guide attention and movement. In order to grasp an object, that object’s location must be translated from its retinotopic coordinates (i. e., where it lands on the retina) into coordinates in space; this translation depends on the direction the eyes and head are pointed. Parietal maps of the locations of body parts and objects in space are critical for planning and executing movements to manipulate objects. These spatial maps output to frontal motor regions for planning body movement and to the frontal eye fields for directing eye movements and attention.

Damage to the posterior parietal lobe can impair visually guided reaching movements and spatial perception (Karnath, 1997). In light of its role in attention and awareness, damage here can also lead to a condition called hemispatial neglect, wherein a patient loses awareness of one side of space—for example, a stroke in the right posterior parietal lobe can lead to the inability to perceive the left visual field, causing the patient to act as if the left side of space doesn’t exist (they might ignore food on the left side of their plate, or when asked to copy a picture, they might only draw the right half). Ultimately, the parietal lobe is critical for processing and integrating sensory information and transmitting this information to brain areas that control attention and movement.[4]

Occipital Lobe

The occipital lobe, located at the back of the brain, contains the visual cortex that processes visual information. Visual input from the eyes travels along the optic nerves to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the thalamus, and continues on to the visual cortex. Visual input enters the cortex at most posterior portion of the occipital lobe—the primary visual cortex (V1). V1 (and other regions in the visual system) is organized retinotopically, meaning that adjacent regions of the retina (and visual field) are represented by adjacent parts of visual cortex. From V1, visual signals are sent to different brain regions (in the visual cortex and beyond) that specialize in processing different image features such as color, edges, orientation, texture, and movement. Visual regions are highly interconnected and recurrent, sending feedforward signals “up” the processing hierarchy, as well as feedback signals “back down” the processing chain (Van Essen et al., 1992). There are two main visual processing pathways—the lower ventral or “what” pathway proceeds to the inferior temporal lobe for object recognition, and the upper dorsal or “where” pathway proceeds to parietal regions for mapping object location, especially for eye or hand movements.[5]


The insula is part of the cerebral cortex tucked deep into the lateral sulcus. It lies underneath parts of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes (Figure 18). It is sometimes called the insular lobe, a fifth lobe of the cerebral cortex, but it remains less understood than the four cortical lobes visible on the brain’s surface. The insula has been implicated in a dizzying array of functions, including sensory processing (e.g., taste and interoceptive processing of bodily states like hunger, pain, and arousal), representing emotions, motor control, self-awareness, empathy, risk prediction, cognitive functioning, consciousness, etc. (Gogolla, 2017). The insula’s involvement in so many functions and its heavy structural connectivity to other brain regions indicates its importance as a hub that links large-scale brain systems. The insula is thought to be involved in many psychological and neurological conditions including anxiety and depressive disorders, emotion dysregulation, autism spectrum disorders, and addiction. While the insula is considered one of the least understood cortical structures of the brain and many open questions remain, a surge of recent research interest is making headway (Gogolla, 2017; Kortz & Lillehei, 2023).


Black and white diagram of a brain from 1908
Figure 18. Anatomical illustration of the right insula from the 1908 edition of Sobotta’s Anatomy Atlas. The insula is exposed here by removing portions of the overlying frontal, parietal, and temporal regions (these overlying areas are termed the “operculum”).

Limbic System

The limbic system is a collection of highly specialized neural structures, both subcortical and cortical, that sit at the top of the brainstem (Figure 19). The limbic system was originally defined by Paul Broca (1880) as a series of structures near the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres (“limbus” is Latin for border). The limbic system is involved in many functions including memory, emotion, behavior, motivation, and olfaction. Given advances in neuroscience, the definition of which structures are included in the limbic system has gone through many iterations (Torrico & Abdijadid, 2019). Major components of the limbic system include the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the cingulate cortex.


Image of the limbic system and the interior of the brain.
Figure 19: A midsagittal plane showing the interior of the brain and the locations of several limbic-system structures, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex.

Hippocampus. The hippocampus is a seahorse shaped structure involved in memory, learning, and spatial processing (Figures 19 and 20). The hippocampus is richly connected to many cortical and subcortical regions. During learning, the connection strengths of hippocampal neurons change, and those changes are thought to be important for particular aspects of memory, particularly the ability to remember more of an event or stimulus when exposed to only part of it (pattern completion), and to remember events or stimuli as distinct from each other (pattern separation). Damage to the hippocampus produces memory deficits. Hippocampus damage occurs early in Alzheimer’s disease, and extensive damage can lead to anterograde amnesia (the inability to form new memories). The hippocampus is also important for spatial navigation. As discovered in rats and mice, many neurons in the hippocampus respond as “place cells,” meaning that they fire bursts of action potentials when the animal passes through a specific place in its environment.


360 degree animation of the Hippocampus
Figure 20. Location of the hippocampus in red.

Amygdala. The amygdala, named for its almond shape, sits adjacent to the hippocampus beneath the cerebral cortex (Figure 19). It is important for processing of emotions, including generating emotional responses (e.g., fear, anxiety, aggression) and emotional learning (e.g., fear conditioning).

The amygdala receives inputs from wide regions of sensory and prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and visceral information from the brainstem, enabling it to integrate information about the situation, the bodily state, memory, and contextual information. The amygdala sends output signals to many regions throughout the brain, including the frontal lobes, hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hypothalamus. This connectivity allows it to produce emotional responses appropriate to a given situation; for example, when a stimulus appears that is associated with punishment, a fear response can be produced by altering hormone release via the hypothalamus, triggering freezing behaviors, and activating the sympathetic nervous system via the brainstem. People with amygdala damage can display reduced emotional behavior or “flat affect”, and show reduced learning about emotional or frightening stimuli or situations.[6]

Basal Ganglia

The basal ganglia (Figure 21) are a group of subcortical nuclei (i.e., clusters of cell bodies that lie below the cerebral cortex) that are especially critical for regulating and selecting voluntary movement. In particular, the basal ganglia are traditionally defined as the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus, but are known to rely on engagement with related nuclei, such as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra, in order to initiate voluntary movement (Lanciego et al., 2012).

Information flows from widespread areas of the cerebral cortex, through the basal ganglia and thalamus, and back to the cerebral cortex. These cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops are important for selecting motor actions, starting and stopping behaviors, and for aspects of motivated behavior (e.g., selecting actions based on whether they are likely to result in something good or bad happening to the individual). The loops include excitatory and inhibitory pathways, the balance of which is important for initiating or inhibiting motor outputs. Disruptions to this circuitry can cause an imbalance between these excitatory and inhibitory effects, as is seen in a number of neurological conditions including Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease, as well as schizophrenia, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.[7]


Image of the Basal Ganglia and related structures
Figure 21: Basal Ganglia and related structures.


The thalamus is an information hub that relays information from and to widespread brain areas (Figure 22A). Nerve fibers project from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex in all directions, allowing it to act as an information hub. The thalamus is organized into specialized regions or nuclei that process specific modalities. All sensory systems, except smell, have a thalamic nucleus that receives sensory signals and sends them on to their corresponding primary cortical areas. For example, the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus receives visual information from the eye via the optic nerve and sends projections to primary visual cortex (Figure 22B); the medial geniculate nucleus receives auditory information from the ear via the inferior colliculus and projects to auditory cortex. Rather than simply relaying information in one direction, however, a key feature of thalamic processing is that nuclei also receive descending information from the cortex, forming circuits termed thalamocortical loops.

Thalamocortical loops are not limited to sensory processing, but also play important roles in memory, attention, motor control, and decision making. These loops demonstrate that the ‘input-computation-output’ function of the nervous system is not simply in one direction—instead, outputs from a given region often feed back to structures that provide inputs to that region, as well as sending outputs to ‘upstream’ brain areas. Finally, because of its role as informational/sensory hub, the thalamus plays a role in transitioning between sleep and wakefulness, as well as modulating alertness and attention (Portas et al., 1998).[8]

spinning animation of a human skull with the Thalamus indicated in red (center).
Figure 22A. Location of the thalamus in red.


Diagram of the visual pathway from the eyes through the thalamus to the visual cortex.
Figure 22B. Visual pathway from the eyes through the thalamus to the visual cortex. Visual information is sent from the retinas at the back of the eyeballs, along the optic nerve to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, then to the primary visual cortex. Blue color represents the path of information from the left visual field; red from the right visual field.


The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus (hence its name) and is primarily responsible for regulating endocrine hormones in conjunction with the pituitary gland that extends from the hypothalamus (Figure 17). Endocrine hormones are known to be important for controlling mood, development, growth, and reproduction. Given its central location in the brain, the hypothalamus has connections to the brainstem, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus (Bear et al., 2018). As a result, the hypothalamus, both by trafficking sensory and motor information and secreting endocrine hormones across different brain regions, is well-positioned to regulate drives and motivations.


The cerebellum (Latin for “little brain”) is the distinctive structure at the back of the brain (Beck & Tapia, 2023). In Figure 23, you can see the cerebellar white matter (arbor vitae) and the cerebellum’s tightly folded surface. The cerebellum is critical for coordinated movement and posture. It does not initiate motor commands, but contributes to movement precision, timing, and fine-tuning (based on sensory feedback), as well as motor learning. In addition to the cerebellum’s long established role in motor control, neuroimaging studies have implicated it in many cognitive functions, including language and attention. It is perhaps not surprising that the cerebellum’s influence extends beyond movement, given that it contains ~80% of the brain’s neurons (most of its neurons are tiny and densely packed granule cells, van Essen et al., 2018) and the majority of the cerebellum maps to cerebral brain networks involved in cognition (Buckner, 2013).[9]


Figure 23. Image shows the location of the cerebellum at the bottom of the brain. Illustrated in white on the medial view are the cerebellar white matter tracts, the arbor vitae (their name stems from their branching, tree-like structure). On the lateral view, you can see the cerebellum’s tightly folded surface.


The brainstem (or brain stem) is sometimes referred to as the “trunk” of the brain (Beck & Tapia, 2023). It contains many white matter tracts carrying information to and from the spinal cord, cranial nerves, and the rest of the brain. The brainstem is responsible for many of the neural functions that keep us alive, including regulating breathing, heart rate, and digestion. In keeping with its function, if a patient sustains severe damage to the brainstem they will often require life-support machines to keep them alive. The brainstem can be divided into multiple sections in descending order: midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata (Figure 24). At the top of the brainstem is the midbrain, which houses dopamine-producing cells, regulates movement, and includes the superior and inferior colliculi, which process and relay visual and auditory information, respectively. Below the midbrain lies the pons which processes and relays sensory and motor information. By employing the cranial nerves, the pons is able to serve as a bridge that connects the cerebral cortex with the medulla and exchange information back and forth between the brain and the spinal cord. The lowest portion of the brainstem, the medulla oblongata, processes breathing, digestion, heart and blood vessel function, swallowing, and sneezing. Collectively, these regions are involved in body regulation, the sleep–wake cycle, and sensory and motor function.[10]


Image of the brainstem and its component substructures
Figure 24. Brainstem and its component substructures, in descending order: the midbrain, pons, and medulla.


Media Attributions

  1. This section contains material adapted from: Betts, J. G. et al. (2022). 13.2 The Central Nervous System. In Anatomy and Physiology 2e. OpenStax. Access for free at License: CC BY 4.0 DEED.             - Hall, C. N. (2023). 2 Exploring the brain: A tour of the structures of the nervous system. In Introduction to Biological Psychology. University of Sussex Library. Access for free at License: CC BY-NC 4.0 DEED
  2. This section contains material adapted from: Biswas-Diener, R. (2023). The brain and nervous system. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF publishers. Retrieved from  License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 DEED             - Betts, J. G. et al. (2022). 13.2 The Central Nervous System. In Anatomy and Physiology 2e. OpenStax. Access for free at License: CC BY 4.0 DEED.             - Clark, M.A., Douglas, M. & Choi, J. (2023). 35.3 The Central Nervous System. In Biology 2e. OpenStax. Access for free at License: CC BY 4.0 DEED.
  3. This section contains material adapted from: Ahmad, A. (2024). The nervous system. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Retrieved from License: CC BY NC SA 4.0 DEED.             - Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord. In Psychology 2e. OpenStax. Access for free at   License: CC BY 4.0 DEED.
  4. This section contains material adapted from: Betts, J. G. et al. (2022). 13.2 The Central Nervous System. In Anatomy and Physiology 2e. OpenStax. Access for free at License: CC BY 4.0 DEED.             - Hall, C. N. (2023). 2.1: Exploring the brain: A tour of the structures of the nervous system. In Introduction to Biological Psychology. University of Sussex Library. Access for free at License: CC BY-NC 4.0 DEED             - Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord. In Psychology 2e.OpenStax. Access for free at   License: CC BY 4.0 DEED.
  5. This section contains material adapted from: Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord. In Psychology 2e.OpenStax. Access for free at   License: CC BY 4.0 DEED.
  6. This section contains material adapted from: Hall, C. N. (2023). 2 Exploring the brain: A tour of the structures of the nervous system. In Introduction to Biological Psychology. University of Sussex Library. Access for free at License: CC BY-NC 4.0 DEED
  7. This section contains material adapted from: Hall, C. N. (2023). 2.1: Exploring the brain- a tour of the structures of the nervous system. In Introduction to Biological Psychology. University of Sussex Library. License: CC BY-NC 4.0 DEED
  8. This section contains material adapted from: Hall, C. N. (2023). 2 Exploring the brain: A tour of the structures of the nervous system. In Introduction to Biological Psychology. University of Sussex Library. Access for free at License: CC BY-NC 4.0 DEED
  9. This section contains material adapted from: Beck, D. & Tapia, E. (2024). The brain. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Access for free at License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 DEED
  10. This section contains material adapted from: Beck, D. & Tapia, E. (2024). The brain. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Access for free at License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 DEED


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